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TBILISI STUDIES SHAKESPEARE
The Shakespeare Studies Center in Tbilisi, capital of Georgia,
- a part of its university's department of Romance (романские)
and Germanic languages has many early editions of the plays,
a large library of books about Shakespeare, including many
in Georgian and Russian, and books given by Shakespearian
centres in Statford-on-Avon, Washington and Weimar and also
tapes (пленки) of famous actors and actresses reading Shakespeare.
The center has built up a great reputation and many foreign
scholars (ученые-гуманитарии) have visited it and lectured
A Shakespeare symposium it organized attracted scholars and
actors from all-over the world.
The center often helps with the productions (зд. постановки)
of the plays which Georgian audiences have long loved, among
them productions of Romeo and Juliet and King Lew at the Rustaveli
Theatre in Tbilisi.
No one knows how long man has used iron. Iron one is to be
found in аlmost all countries, and primitive man in many lands
knew how to use it many centuries ago.
One can only guess (догадываться) as to the way man first
learned that ore could be melted and used for his tools. Perhaps
some primitive man's camp fire first smelted (плавить) iron
by accident. Legend says that fifteen hundred years before
Christ (1) a forest fire showed the people
of the island of Crete (Крит) how to make iron. Pictures which
date back to thirty-five hundred years before Christ show
Egyptians smelting iron with the air of a goat-skin bellows
(мехи из козьей кожи). However (2) man may
have found out how to make iron, it was made by the same method
in ancient times in Africa, in China, in India, as well as
in the countries around the Mediterranean . to England Caesar
0 found the Britons making iron very much as the explorer
may still find it made in remote parts of Africa and Asia.
Even the Romans were unable to make much improvement on the
process of making iron. Rome produced thus all the metal with
which Caesar armed his victorious legions. The iron which
held together the oak of Columbus's ships was made in a simple
fire-place like a blacksmith's forge. Iron for Washington's
cannon and musket (3) was made in tall furnaces
not unlike big stone chimneys (4). The fire
was fed by the forced draft commonly produced by a water wheel.
We must not think that because the ancients had difficulty
in making iron they could not make good iron. The fact is
that their product was as good as, and even better than, most
of the iron we have today. The stories are true of the splendid
shinning swords of ancient heroes. We have learned merely
how to make iron more easily and more cheaply. The principle
of iron-making has always been the same, whether it was (5)
in Central Africa or Rome, in the time of George Washington
or Andrew Carnegie (6); hot fire smelts
the iron out of the ore.
The Smithsonian Institution (8) has put
on exhibit a "living fossil" fish, the coelacanth,
in the coelacanth, in the National Museum. Another is at the
Amercan Museum of Natural History. The coelacanth was believed
by scientists to have become extinct 0 70,000,000 years ago.
But a specimen was caught alive in 1938 in the Indian Ocean
off South Africa; since 1952, twelve have been caught near
Madagascar. The coelacanth has two pairs of limb-like fins
(9) and a rudimentary lung. These are like
those from which the legs, arms and lungs of man and other
land vertebrates (позвоночные) could have evolved. Palaeontologists
have traced the ancestry (родословная, предки) of the coelacanth
back 325,000,000 years to the group of creatures (существ)
from which all land vertebrates descended (произошли). The
specimen put on exhibit in Washington is a forty-three-pound
fifty-one inch male (самец).
No star is ever lost we once have seen,
We always may be what we might have been. (10)
Adelaide Anne Procter (England, 1825-1864)
(1) before Christ [kraist] (сокращенно B.C)
- до нашей эры
(2) However - как бы ни (см. however в приложении)
(3) Washington's cannon and musket - пушки
и мушкеты Георг Вашингтона. Cannon не изменяется во множественном
(4) not unlike ... chimneys - несколько
похожи ... на трубы. Два отрицания not, un -дают положительный
эффект. Буквально: " не похожи".
(5) whether it was ... - независимо от того,
было ли это ...
(6) Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) - Эндрю
Карнеги, американский "стальной король"
(7) coelacanth ['si.'lqkxnT] - целакант
(8) Smithsonian Institution - см. примечание
(2) к уроку 20
(9) limb-like fins - плавники, похожие на
(10) We always may be what we might have
been - мы всегда можем стать тем, чем могли бы стать (т.е.
никогда не поздно наверстать упущенное)